Henry II. How the consequences of Thomas Becket’s murder in Canterbury Cathedral 850 years ago may have influenced Henry II in creating Dover Castle’s Great Tower. Eleanor had been abandoned by a French King, Louis VI, for reasons that are too complicated to go into. Adam Nicholson New Penguin Dictionary of Modern History In June 1162 Thomas Becket, by training as an accounts clerk to his cousin, a banker, was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury. Rochdale an interesting chapel from the train? . He took as his emblem the "sprig of broom" of the House of Anjou, which in the French of the day became "plant a genet", or Plantagenet. Directed by Peter Glenville. Henry takes off his robe and is naked. Earlier in his life, Thomas Becket was a personal friend of Henry II. Dorothy Parker: some things worth remembering . However, once in the post, Becket had essentially abandoned Henry’s policies and sought to defend and extend the influence and rights of … Henry and Thomas saw fit to use the matter of the Benefit of Clergy to bring matters to a head between them. Kings were careful of the power of the Catholic church in Rome BUT they were also jealous of it as it challenged their own power. Then, Henry saw an opportunity to place Thomas in the highest position of power in the English church. Becket's administrative skills, his charm, intelligence and diplomacy propelled him forward. Often together, people said the two men ‘had but one heart and one mind’. He wasn’t, he was Norman! Henry married the richest woman in Europe, Eleanor de Aquitaine in 1152 when he was 19. It was entwined with bitterness, heightened by their previous personal friendship and Thomas laterly finding God, which resulted in him leveraging a whole new network of power against his previous friend and boss. After his death Pope Alexander III forgave Henry for the murder of Thomas Becket, an act which would have him, also, laugh out loud. Becket was born in 1118, in Normandy the son of an English merchant. The murder shocked medieval society. He was tall, bad tempered, athletic, good-looking and a typical Plantagenet. Henry was not Stephen’s son, but took the throne because Stephen had recognised Henry as his heir in the Treaty of Winchester (1153). It was one of the most famous events of the 12th century. Thomas Becket (/ ˈ b ɛ k ɪ t /), also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London and later Thomas à Becket (21 December 1119 or 1120 – 29 December 1170), was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. Henry begged him to return, and he did so, apparently reconciled, in 1170. Adam and Eve Panel East@Meon Font Test teas elations with thanks to @helen.banham ... Hampshire Stained Glass Window and some tests for@our HH project @helen.banham @hampshirehistory ... Rochdale an interesting chapel from the train? One of the major problems of Henry II’s reign was the murder of Thomas Becket, a murder for which many would hold Henry responsible. He became a strong defender of the church and the rights of the clergymen, a contrary expectance Henry II had of him. (Christine Caccipuoti) Being King of England isn't an easy task, but Henry II was aided by his good friend Thomas Becket serving as Chancellor. They were Henry, who died in his youth; Richard (known as The Lionheart) who became Richard I; John (known as Lackland) who became John I (of Robin Hood fame), and Geoffrey, by far the cleverest of the three, who never became anything important. Debauched King Henry II (Peter O'Toole) installs his longtime court facilitator Thomas Becket (Richard Burton) as the Archbishop of Canterbury, assuming that his old friend will be a compliant and loyal lackey in the King's on-going battles with the church. Certainly Becket wanted to prove to those churchmen who had opposed his consecration that he was capable of being the best Archbishop of Canterbury there had ever been but was it necessary that in order to achieve that he had to oppose the King? After the canonisation of Thomas, Henry II had himself soundly scourged by willing monks in repentance for having suggested Becket’s death, and quietly told the murderers to exile themselves in France quickly, on pain of death. Henry II and Thomas Becket information worksheet; The murder of Thomas Becket events worksheet Students enjoyed being creative in their descriptions of Becket’s murder in their news reports. Henry II of England, Louis VII of France and Thomas Becket met at Montmirail to hold peace talks. The King died, exhausted by his work, his rebellious sons and his clever scheming wife, in 1189, aged only fifty-six. In Act I, King Henry II visits the tomb of Thomas Becket, who has just been assassinated. He wept before the crypt and spoke of his remorse at uttering those fateful words. While kneeling at the grave and awaiting a flogging punishment from the church for participating in the events that led to Becket’s murder, Henry remembers better times when the two were friends. Certainly the power of the man must have been immense, was he simply self seeking or was his political desire to reduce the power of the monarch born out of a more altruistic stance? Before long Becket clashed with Henry in the councils at Westminster, Clarendon and Northampton, especially over Henry’s claim to try in the lay courts clergymen who had already been convicted in an ecclesiastical court. Becket was one of the most powerful figures of his time, serving as royal Chancellor and later as Archbishop of Canterbury. Close friends turned bitter opponents, they became locked in a feud that culminated in Becket's gruesome murder shortly after Christmas in the year 1170. First, Henry had to deal vigorously with the mess, meyhem and ruin left by the disastrous previous reign and civil wars. Thomas Becket and Henry II were more than a King and his servant, Thomas Becket was the King’s friend and confidante. image caption One image in Canterbury's medieval glass depicts Henry II doing penance at the tomb of St Thomas in 1174 But like everything connected with Becket … It is important to relate that history notes Henry’s wife Eleanor of Aquitaine could not stand Becket, and nor could Henry’s mother. 177 Christopher Lee The latter was a great soldier and fine strategist who married Berengaria of Spain, though as he was an active homosexual there were no fruits of the marriage. Is this just another tale of a King and trusted confidantes relationship turned sour? Notify me of follow-up comments by email. 4 Answers. Becket became a successful and trusted friend and adviser. Most notably, the initial cause of strife between Becket and King Henry II in the film—the killing of a priest by Lord Gilbert and his subsequent excommunication by Thomas Becket—is an unhistorical embellishment. Henry became Count of Anjou and Maine upon the death of his father, Count Geoffrey V, in 1151. What co Often together, people said the two men ‘had but one heart and one mind’. His subjects were reminded that they must by Law equip themselves for military service. Becket quickly came to be seen as a martyr, people prayed to him, and he was believed to work miracles. Preview and details Files included (3) pptx, 1 MB. The relationship between Henry II and Thomas Becket had been rocky ever since Becket became archbishop of Canterbury. Once considered close and trusted friends, quite what drove Becket on his chosen course of action is uncertain. Adam and Eve Panel East@Meon Font Test teas elatio, Adam and Eve Panel East@Meon Font Test teas elations with thanks to @helen.banham, Hampshire Stained Glass Window and some tests for@, Hampshire Stained Glass Window and some tests for@our HH project @helen.banham @hampshirehistory, Rochdale an interesting chapel from the train? On the suggestion of Theobald, Henry appointed Thomas Becket as his chancellor. He stayed close to the side of the King, living a lavish life style in which he drew the King’s confidence more and more, siding with the King in issues of church and state. On Geoffrey’s death young Henry inherited Normandy, Maine (not the State in New England please), Touraine, Brittany and Anjou, in France. FREE (4) DawnTurner 1066 Who should be king? Paul Massie. Map your history, make new connections and gain insights for family, local or special interest projects. Only a few year later, after the death of Theobald, Henry II asked Becket to take his place. © 2019 Intriguing History. The main source of the friction was over what to do with clergy who committed secular crimes. The King thought (in vain) that through Becket he would be able to rule the Church, but Becket did not share this good idea. Becket submitted to Henry excepting only on one point, and the negotiations failed. One, King Henry ii, who brought law and order to England, died deserted and broken-hearted in France; the other, Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered in his own cathedral. As Chancellor, Becket travelled a good deal, and was both statesman and diplomat. Everything seemed smooth and happy when Henry suddenly made Becket Archibishop of Canterbury, thus elevating him to the highest post in the English Catholic Church, acting directly for the Pope. The truth of the relationship between these two men is probably more complex than can be envisaged. King Henry II of England comes to terms with his affection for his close friend and confidant Thomas Becket, who finds his true honor by observing God's divine will rather than the King's. One should note that a chancellor of England in the twelfth century was equivalent in power and prestige to the Prime Minister of today. Thomas Becket, Henry II and Dover Castle. Antony Beevor Soon their were proclamations of miracles taking place at his tomb. Archbishop Thomas Becket was martyred on 29 December 1170, brutally murdered in front of the altar at Canterbury Cathedral.It was the culmination of years of opposition to his former friend and master King Henry II.. As Thomas was confronted by four knights, swords drawn, on the very brink of losing their temper, it is hard to work out what was going through his mind. Thomas Becket, Henry II and Dover Castle. He dismounted from his horse as he came in sight of Canterbury, walked as a penitent pilgrim in a woollen shirt, with bare feet, through the streets, knelt in the porch of the cathedral and kissed the sacred stone on which the archbishop had been murdered. Early life and career Thomas was born to Norman parents of the merchant class. All Rights Reserved. The King died, exhausted by his work, his rebellious sons and his clever scheming wife, in 1189, aged only fifty-six. He went on to initiate a number of legal reforms in the Assizes of Clarendon and Northampton. These territories were enhanced by the homage of King Malcolm III of Scotland in 1157, and his recognition by the barons of Ireland as their overlord in 1171. Thomas Becket and Henry II The death of Thomas Becket is a well known event because of its unforeseen results. Relevance. The new King was the lawful son of Geoffrey, Count of Anjou. This [book] tells the story of the quarrel of two great and determined men 800 years ago. Henry and sheriff’s aid. At 24, he obtained a post in the household of Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury. As Head of the Catholic Church in England he caused Henry endless trouble. With Richard Burton, Peter O'Toole, John Gielgud, Gino Cervi. Becket, quick-witted and agreeable, impressed his new employer, who duly recommended him to Henry II for the post of Lord Chancellor in 1155, and he swiftly made himself indispensable to the king by securing his traditional sources of revenue. Each of these roused rebellions against his father in the period between 1171 and 74. King Henry had considered Thomas a true and trusted friend had lifted him to this high status and therefore in the first instance was hurt and puzzled by Becket’s actions. Henry had thought that putting his friend in charge of the church in England would mean the two would be able to work together. The murder shocked medieval society. Henry II and Thomas a Becket BY DAVID ROSS, EDITOR Henry II (1154-89) was the son of Queen Maud and Geoffrey of Anjou. How Falling Out with Henry II Resulted in Thomas Becket’s Slaughter The Clergy and crime. They are Becket (1964) with Peter O’Toole as Henry and Richard Burton as Becket, and The Lion in Winter (1968) with O’Toole as an ageing Henry, Katharine Hepburn magnificent as Eleanor, and Anthony Hopkins and Timothy Dalton in small parts. Even in its day, the murder of Thomas Becket generated enormous publicity. Shortly afterwards the Pope, for ever ready in case he could do Britain some damage, made Becket a saint, which, if he had known it in life, would have made Thomas Becket laugh out loud. Becket’s star rose quickly, he had many skills, he was an excellent advisor and administrator and guided the King in issues of state including diplomatic and military strategies. Interesting movie, particularly how Becket refused to allow priests be prosecuted for temproal crimes in civil courts. Thomas Becket, a son of a simple draper’s merchant, having proven himself to be extremely efficient and reliable secretary to Theobald, the archbishop of Canterbury, was nominated as Henry II’s chancellor in 1155. In 1145, Thomas went to work for the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop Theobald. He was great friends with Henry, later to become King Henry II of England. I am watching this movie Becket on Turner Classic and it sure as heck seems like it. The archbishop sen… Becket benefited from his family's status first by being sent to Paris for his education and from there to England where he joined the household of Theobold, the then Archbishop of Canterbury. Thomas Becket was born in England in 1118. That hurt soon turned to anger and as Thomas Becket pushed so the King began to push back and the quarrels intensified. He had become Archdeacon of Canterbury in 1154, and easily managed to combine being a prince of the Church with the more worldly position as Chancellor. Sir Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk Anonymous. Royal Favor: Henry II and Thomas Becket. Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, was King of England from 1154 to his death. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. From afar he challenged the King and claimed to be working for the liberties of the Church but despite reconciliation being urged by the Pope neither side would yield. Thomas publically accepted these constitutions only to renounce them later. Share the post "Henry II and Thomas Becket". ‘Dean Swift’ is a pen name: the author has been a soldier; he has worked in sales, TV, the making of films, as a teacher of English and history and a journalist. 1 decade ago. Henri II Plantagenêt Vous lisez un « bon article ». Public admiration however, soon silenced all opposition. After the canonisation of Thomas, Henry II had himself soundly scourged by willing monks in repentance for having suggested Becket’s death, and quietly told the murderers to exile themselves in France quickly, on pain of death. Legend tells us that he asked, “Who will rid me of this troublesome (in some accounts ‘irksome’) priest?” The knights rode off the seventy miles to Canterbury and cut Becket down by his own high altar in Canterbury Cathedral. His family was well off, his father a former Sheriff of London. Henry II: Preceded by: Robert of Ghent: Succeeded by: Geoffrey Ridel: Thomas Becket was an English priest, and Archbishop of Canterbury, who was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral in 1170. At first opinion was deeply split on his death, he was seen as someone who wished kingship for himself but not just king, he wished to be head of the church as well. An infuriated Henry brought Becket to face trial on trumped up charges and his estates removed from him but Becket realising that his time may be up fled for the continent where he remained for six years. Henry II and Thomas Becket Monika H rma Henry II Was born on 4 March 1133, died in 1189. He was scourged by the monks, abbot and bishop upon the tomb of St Thomas where he implored for forgiveness. The torturous years-long quarrel between Henry II and Thomas Becket concerning the rights of Crown and Church in Medieval England is the stuff of legend. All in all, young Henry had a very great deal going for him. Reconnect on plugin Settings page. A London merchant's son, Thomas Becket would grow to become one of the most devout Archbishops of the 12th century. BY DAVID ROSS, EDITOR. Henry II gained his throne thanks to the efforts of his mother, who fought to maintain her family's stature in the royal family tree. Becket's job was an important one as it involved the distribution of royal charters, writs and letters. He is venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church and in the Anglican Communion. Where Henry II and Thomas Becket gay lovers? Henry the King and Becket the Archbishop had a number of terrific public rows, leading to the latter’s escaping to exile in France, where he was well received by the French monarch. State theft or The Dissolution of the Monasteries, Further thoughts on Thomas Becket, martyr and saint. His fear of excommunication was very great, he sought out Becket’s murderers and begged forgiveness and reconciliation with the Pope. Henry had thought that putting his friend in charge of the church in England would mean the two would be able to work together. He became a strong defender of the church and the rights of the clergymen, a contrary expectance Henry II had of him. Copyright 2012 - 2017 Avada | All Rights Reserved | Powered by. As Guy points out, Henry VIII’s looting and destruction of the sanctuary of St Thomas Becket in September 1538, his burning of Becket’s remains, and the king’s posthumous designation of Becket as a “rebel and traitor to his prince” had a clear political purpose. Gold vs. Bitcoin from a historical perspective, Writing an Excellent Essay for History Homework, We are in a cold civil war… – Behind Enemy Lines, Knights Hospitaller & Knights Templar: the difference, As Johnson threatens UK's neighbours with gunboats, we revisit the lies underpinning the entire Brexit project - 1Gov.uK - The People's Government Website, Business Card Research Links: – The Exhibition Coalition. Thomas Becket was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162 by Henry II. He came up with a solution that would achieve the same end, while satisfying the restrictions of … Henry was not Stephen’s son, but took the throne because Stephen had recognised Henry as his heir in the Treaty of Winchester (1153). Henry’s biggest mistake was the appointment of his friend and crony Thomas Becket, a cunning Norman, to the See of Canterbury. He also fired a number of bishops appointed in his absence by the King. When a priest accused of rape was executed by a local baron (de Beaumont), Becket promptly excommunicated him, which made the King very angry indeed as de Beaumont was a crony. Answer Save. Henry II, King of England (1133 – 89) succeeded King Stephen in 1154. £3.00. Thomas à Becket (1118 – 1170) was a Londoner, born into a comfortably-off Norman family; he was educated in Paris and Bologna, where he acquired notoriety as a bit of a scoundrel and ladykiller. Dan Jones . 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