Meanwhile Pinochet’s government was making political parties into legitimate actors, while demonizing them in its propaganda. The human rights officer… Don Knight, who also arrived in the summer of ’85, was the labor and human rights officer. The message we crafted was: “We have deep, long-standing ties and common interests with Chile and its people. They were like political cabaret, with great music and light-hearted lyrics. Embassy functions, both ours and the Europeans, were among the only places the government moderates, the conservative nationals and the democratic left could meet and converse freely.…. A huge audience in Washington followed these conversations.…, His actions spoke that message. Tens of thousands were tortured, disappeared, killed or exiled during his campaign against the pro-Allende communists and socialists. In 1980, a new constitution was approved, which mandated a single-candidate presidential referendum in 1988, where a candidate nominated by the Junta would be approved or rejected for another 8-year period. But the U.S. Congress kept a close eye on human rights violations, and the Embassy raised its voice on those issues. He was faced with a disruptive group of Communists. 3 Answers. In 1980, a new constitution was approved, which mandated a single-candidate presidential referendum in … The September 11, 1973 coup against Socialist president Salvador Allende led to the brutal dictatorship under Commander-in-Chief Augusto Pinochet, who immediately began to round up thousands of opponents in stadiums and elsewhere and have them killed. So it was a confidence game. dj55ben. As hope rekindled, the opposition lightened up, making fun of Pinochet as a doddering old man. Few in the opposition knew how to best them. Some three decades after the right-wing dictator Augusto Pinochet left power by way of a national plebiscite, more than a million Chileans took […] Large In a year now notorious for the dismal pandemic that has gripped the globe, as well as the far-right authoritarianism that has blossomed in its midst, a remarkable opportunity is facing Chile. He maintained a pretty friendly relationship with the military government. The 1980 constitution imposed by Pinochet further concentrated his powers. Almost 40 … After the coup Augusto Pinochet established himself as the leader of Chile and set up a military dictatorship with the heavy involvement of his army. No violence, however. So on the Sunday before the election he had the Chilean ambassador to the U.S. called in. Harry Barnes served as Ambassador to Chile and recounts the efforts the U.S. made to establish contact with the democratic opposition and to ensure the plebiscite would be free and fair. I helped convince Juan Ignacio Garcia that Cívitas and Monica Jimenez did not have a political agenda and were legitimate actors. Lagos, who was elected President of Chile in 2000, visited the U.S in the pre-plebiscite period. The outgoing cultural attaché, Peter DeShazo, opened his house to Democratic Socialists as well as to Christian Democrats and other opposition leaders, but Ambassador Theberge strongly discouraged these ties. As a result the other three refused to go along, which one could not have predicted at that time. Jeane Kirkpatrick as our Ambassador to the UN also sat in on the Cabinet and was stating that we should work closely with the military leaders in Latin America, because they were closer to our ideals and all. The conservative parties remained apart, but some also supported the no vote. Answer Save. Pinochet was a typical dictator—until 1988. ROE:  Another decisive moment happened when the first election results came in. That was a very effective message. Concertación candidate Patricio Aylwin (Christian Democrats) won decisively, heading the first democratically elected government in 16 years. He was a bloody dictator. Mostly, they felt betrayed. They didn’t act triumphant, because no one, not even the old-line Communists, wanted the country to suffer more suicidal feuding. Generally, the Chicago Boys (CB) recipe for privatizing and removing trade barriers and balancing the macroeconomic variables was judged to be a success. We opened up close channels with the democratic socialist wing of the opposition, which the U.S. had previously tended to equate with the Allende left. The effect was electrifying. But there are big costs. Your browser (Internet Explorer 7 or lower) is out of date. Please enable Cookies and reload the page. Santiago, on December 10, 2006) was a Chilean general who became Chile's head of state (or leader) from 1973 to 1990. This was debatable, but it tagged her as pro-dictator. In the days that followed his military coup, hundreds of people, were rounded up and taken to the two main sport stadiums in the capital, Santiago. I remember attending a dinner party that was top heavy with this group. We were able to provide some assistance through the National Endowment for Democracy in terms of how one organizes campaigns, since enough time had gone by 1973 was the last election. Pinochet accepted the results and handed over power to a civilian government in 1990. It was an onerous process. A portion of the Congress was appointed, and the President could not remove the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The IB History examination is very keen that students learn to compare and contrast the methods and conditions which led to the rise to power of single party state rulers - sometimes insisting that they are from different parts of the world, and / or that one is a right-wing dictator whilst the other is a left-wing dictator! People would tell different things to the pollsters based on whether or not they trusted them or thought the balloting would be fair. You had asked about public reactions to those trying to push U.S. ideas on another country. It’s very dark there.” I said, “There must be some rays of light or else people couldn’t cope.”…. At that point you had an outpouring of positive energy. Augusto Pinochet. Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (n. 25 noiembrie 1915, Valparaíso, Chile – d. 10 decembrie 2006, Santiago de Chile, Chile), cunoscut mai mult ca Augusto Pinochet, a fost un general, om politic de dreapta și dictator chilian, care a îndeplinit funcția de Președinte al Republicii Chile între 1974 și 1990. ROE: Kirkpatrick’s 1979 article in Commentary magazine argued that the U.S. should work with authoritarian governments like those of Chile, Argentina and South Africa because they were more likely to lead to democracy than were revolutionary regimes of the left. But the TV showed a little after that, a half an hour or so later, were pictures of the other commanders of the Armed Forces, that is, the Air Force, the Carabineros, the Navy going toward the Presidential Palace and obviously a meeting of the junta with Pinochet. Even the pro-democracy conservatives began finding their voices. We set up a voluntary visitor program through USIS [U.S. Information Service] to facilitate his goal of meeting with Wall Street people. General Augusto Pinochet, who ruled Chile as a dictator for 17 years, is dead. Instead I said, “It was a fascinating place. It was brutal,” she said. And speaking of interference in another country:  sending hit men to assassinate a foreign minister in the U.S. capital was about the limit …, Chilean society was fractured under Allende and even more so under most of Pinochet’s reign. The opposition leaders wanted the world to know they were not about vengeance or divisiveness. The opposition gained strength when it abandoned the strategy of social mobilization in favor of an electoral strategy. Pinochet continued to serve as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until March 1998, when he retired and became a senator-for-life in accordance with his 1980 Constitution. The police would douse the protesters with water canons, spray tear gas, and start shooting with little provocation. Talking with people in the provinces, I saw a tremendous groundswell of support for the “no” side. More than 3,000 were killed in the September military onslaught, which began when fighter jets bombed the Presidential Palace while the democratically elected President, Salvador Allende, was still inside. The Communist party believed that only armed conflict could end the dictatorship. When in power, Pinochet instituted vast reforms to try to cure the Chilean nation which had been left in a deep economic, social, political and constitutional crisis. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. You can impose them without worrying about the democratic political process. We thought the procedural instruments the government had put in place could create the framework for a free and fair election, if the military regime didn’t abort the process. General pinochet lose power through a referendum, A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal. They rocked people with an upbeat message. [Fernando] Matthei, the Air Force general was stopped by a reporter and was asked what had happed. Following a legal battle he was released on grounds of ill health, and returned to Chile in March 2000. Pinochet led a 11 September 1973 coup which deposed Socialist President Salvador Allende. Relevance. In the end it was a major element in Pinochet’s downfall. Lagos talked back without hesitation and subdued the hecklers. After that they started running old sitcoms. General Augusto Pinochet took control of Chile in September 1973 following a military coup which had ousted the previous incumbent Salvador Allende. That would provide democratic forces a glimmer of hope. Favorite Answer. The 1970s and 1980s were a long, dark time for Chile. Beggars held out their hands at every street corner. Chile is a legalistic, constitutional country that prides itself on respecting the law. Under the leadership of Monica Jimenez, the head of Catholic University’s School of Social Work, Cívitas mounted a non-partisan voter education campaign to convince people their vote would be counted and to assist them in registering. https://www.e-ir.info/2015/05/14/an-assessment-of-the-pinochet-regime-in-chile The national debates in the Congress are completely free, open — they’re nationally televised and attract a huge audience.” When I mentioned the vibrant civic life, a few guests looked about ready to have heart attacks on the spot. ROE:  In July 1985, I took an assignment as a political officer in Chile. He was assassinated by Pinochet’s agents in 1976]… transformed U.S. relations with Pinochet. She said Jorge had solid information that Pinochet intended to stage a mini-coup the night of the election. Q: We were deep into the Reagan period. The crisis over foreign exchange triggered a sharp recession. Chileans began planning for the national elections in December of ’89. At one point Juan Gabriel Valdez, who later became Chilean Ambassador to the UN, offered to provide sensitive information on the case and I connected him with Ambassador Barnes. The PDC, PPD, the radicals, conservatives and eventually the Partido Socialista won recognition. In 1984, a year before the plebiscite, he gave a speech in Antofagasta, a bleak, troubled industrial port about halfway between Iquique and Valparaiso that used to be a mining center. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/augusto-pinochet-5818.php He came to power as a member of a council of military leaders after the overthrow of the communist government of President Salvador Allende.Pinochet … The talk turned to reconciliation — what would happen when they finally return to democratic government, could unearth the truth about the dirty war, and take steps to heal the wounds. During Ambassador Barnes’ first few weeks, he went to visit Gabriel Valdes [the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Chile under President Eduardo Frei from 1964 to 1970 and who was a vocal opponent of the military dictatorship, right] in his office. By the time of his death on December 10, 2006, about 300 criminal charges were still pending against him in Chile for numerous human rights violations and embezzlement during and after his rule. The US suffered from a near obsession with an idea of a global communist conspiracy where everything was believed to be controlled by Moscow. Chileans are proud of their country as a middle class haven, a country that escaped the worst colonial oppression of the lands that supplied Spain’s gold and silver. I often sat in on these. Pinochet was involved in Operation Condor, a cooperative effort by several South American governments to remove leftist opposition leaders, often by murder. But some critics were scathing in their appraisal. Some mainstream political parties joined in, but those in charge were mostly the trade union vanguard, students and the radical left. You had groups of people, one for example which was taking no sides on the plebiscite outcome or not, but was saying it was Chileans’ obligations as citizens to vote. I was stumped at first — how do you say to Pinochet that we’re here to undermine you and assist the rebirth of democracy? Barnes met daily with key civic, political and intellectual leaders one on one at his residence. Interested in Recording Your Oral History, Association for Diplomatic Studies & Training. We guessed, I guess is the way I would have to put it, based on the polling that had been done by organizations we confidence in, including people who were, what should I say, were very much non-partisan, as well as those inclined one way or the other. Students then conclude this study by writing an essay on … If they wanted him to be replaced there would have to be a competitive election. The election count would be called off. U.S. assistance to the opposition was non-partisan, because there were no candidates in the plebiscite, just a vote to say “si” or “no” to the regime. It has known security flaws and may not display all features of this and other websites. He unexpectedly lost a plebiscite that would have extended his rule over Chile for an additional eight-year term. With 1988 that was eight years later. Pinochet maintained power by dissolving parliament, banning all political parties and trade unions, and allegedly murdering thousands of Chileans who stood in opposition to his rule. • 1988 Pinochet loses a referendum on whether he should remain in power. Cívitas, one of the main civil society organizations, ran a nationwide campaign to re-register all the Chileans who wanted to vote. Pinochet had destroyed all the registration rolls and established a national identification system. A Chilean commission investigating human rights abuses under the former military leader Gen Augusto Pinochet says there are many more victims than previously documented. We later heard from members of the junta that the stop-the-election plan was real. On September 11, 1973, Augusto Pinochet seized power in Chile by force. Losing the plebiscite completely stunned him. DICTATOR'S REGIME Immediately he impose a military regiment, suspended the constitution. They found a way to come together and recover their democratic ethos.…, Pinochet brought a different kind of technocrat into government from the middle class. • 1990 He steps down as head of state but remains army commander-in-chief and is later made a senator for life. 4. This changed after Ambassador Harry Barnes’s arrival. His 17-year regime was responsible for numerous human rights violations, some of which were committed as part of Operation Condor, an illegal effort to suppress political opponents in Chile and abroad in coordination with foreign intelligence agencies. Your own constitution mandates better rules.”. I briefed the news reporters on that issue. How you vote is up to you, but vote. Our policies and actions had deep resonance, but they were not the main story. Lagos wanted to let them know that when the “no” vote prevailed, it wasn’t going to hurt the economy, that the opposition leadership was committed to keep the basic economic framework in place and work to humanize it. He had the elected President, Salvador Allende, killed to become president. He outlawed the political parties. Sergio Jarpa, the leader of the conservative National party and a previous supporter of Pinochet, went public and stated that the no vote had won. In 2004, a Chilean judge placed him under house arrest. The Congress and the NGO community kept up pressure in the effort to develop credible information for the Justice Department. The Cívitas campaign gained ground. The coup in which General Augusto Pinochet seized power in 1973 was the bloodiest in 20th century South America. But I got wind of something that would have completely thrown the election. Augusto Pinochet, the son of a customs official, was born in Chile on 26th November 1915. Learn how to update your browser. BARNES: If you can have flood gates that are good things, the flood gates opened. Milton Friedman, the guru of the monetarist school of economists based at the University of Chicago, taught and groomed quite a few of Pinochet’s top advisors. They knew he would be around for a year or two, before the first free elections in 20 years would take place. The polls were pretty imprecise. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. He curried a reputation of being an uncorrupted dictator. The last thing they expected was to hear the view that Bolivia was more advanced in civic discourse. Pinochet was very confident. One of my close contacts was Jorge Jimenez, the brother of Monica Jimenez, who ran Cívitas. THE world got its first glimpse of Augusto Pinochet on September 11th 1973. The middle class was unhappy about the repression but also weary of these futile confrontations. His Constitution set strong limits on the democratic process. Pinochet had committed to an open plebiscite, but few believed his words. The initial plan held that Pinochet would rule only for a year, to be succeeded by the chiefs of the navy, police and air force. Pinochet, under pressure from other countries was forced to accept the results, and stepped down from power in 1990. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. There was a joyous feeling of release and celebration nationwide. Though Bolivia was also in turmoil, by comparison this felt like stepping into a cauldron. The CB economists erred, for example, in pegging the peso to the dollar. In the early 1980s the U.S. frequently bashed the PDC and other center-left opposition parties for not banning the communists from taking part in the protest demonstrations. You can also read about the failed coup, El Tanquetazo, as well as about Argentina’s transition to democracy. General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (b.Valparaíso, on November 25, 1915–d. Both the opposition and the shadow reform elements in the government wanted to build bridges not only with Europe but also with Southeast Asia. They’re also acutely aware of their economic interdependence. She also fervently criticized President Carter’s human rights policies. Augusto Pinochet is known for being the leader of a military junta that overthrew the socialist government of Pres. They would bring out the soldiers and there would be massive confrontations and bloodshed. So I brainstormed with Jorge Castillo, …a stalwart in the Political section. Pinochet ruled with an iron fist. Ambassador Barnes corroborated this report and determined that it was a plausible threat. We thought the opposition could win as long as elections proceeded as planned. Not having rule of law means you won’t have transparent governance or marketplace; you won’t build investor confidence or have economic sustainability. Despite being charged first by a court in Spain in 1998 and then in his native Chile, Pinochet eluded prosecution by claiming he was mentally unfit to defend himself in legal proceedings. Q: Prior to the plebiscite, how did we see the vote going, provided there was no military interference? BARNES: We thought it could be quite close, because Pinochet had and appealed still to people old enough to remember the Allende era and some of the problems of that era. The ’76 car bombing in Washington that killed Foreign Minister Orlando Letelier [who served during the presidency of Socialist President Salvador Allende and who, as a political refugee from Pinochet’s government, took an academic position in Washington, D.C.. One of the panelists they had on was one of the leading supporters of the “yes” vote. Presidential and parliamentary elections took place as scheduled on December 14, 1989; Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin won and took office on the following March. This gradually began to snowball in the sense of citizen participation. Of course, the pundits admitted that you can only implement severe fiscal austerity if you have an iron fist. Views expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the U.S. Government or of ADST. We coordinated with the Brazilians and with the Argentinean, the British and the French, and so on, in terms of technical expertise and support. One of the things the people of Chile had a chance to approve was that Constitution in a plebiscite in 1980. From a government that was elected by the people, the power shifted to the military officers. Q: What happened afterwards from your perspective? how did Augusto Pinochet gain power with the "great Man" theory and the crisis theory? We support the goal of a transition to democracy. Several years after stepping down, he was charged with war crimes concerning his time as president but died in 2006 before being convicted on any charges. About 56% of the people did not want that. When Chileans elected Patricio Aylwin president in 1989, his government and successive administrations kept in place the bulk of the economic reforms. A month later, Pinochet led the military coup that overthrew Allende. These included Socialists, the Radical party, and the Humanists, a left-of-center international organization founded in Argentina that advocates non-violence and the development of human potential; the National party, an older conservative grouping; and Renovación Nacional, a new moderate conservative party with an engaging leader, Andres Allemand, a former national soccer hero of Chile.…. But we saw hopeful signs with the banding together of the democratic opposition, the soul searching that led to them presenting a more credible alternative, a team that could Chile to the rule of law and manage the economic transition. But they refused and Gen. Pinochet had to accept defeat. The 1988 plebiscite was a plebiscite in the sense it was more of Pinochet, another eight years of Pinochet, or go to a competitive election. He was interviewed by Kennedy beginning in April 2001. In an interview conducted by Charles Stuart Kennedy beginning in January 2005, she shares her impressions and conclusions on the political climate before and after the plebiscite, the economic advice from Milton Friedman and the “Chicago Boys,” and how the Letelier assassination proved to be the last straw for support in Washington. Pinochet rose to power following a U.S.-backed, violent coup by the Chilean army on Sept. 11, 1973, which ousted the country’s democratically-elected president, the … As former dictator Augusto Pinochet was preparing to ... Defenders of the dialogue said there was nothing to lose. Augusto Pinochet did not retire-He issued a referendum asking the people of Chile to accept or reject his government.He lost the referendum letting him to lose … Thousands and thousands of chileans were killed. RISE TO POWER THE COUP D'ETAT In September 11 1973 the military of the Conservative party of Chile, with help of USA Overthrow Salvador Allende. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. Pinochet conceded in a dazed, semi-defiant, somewhat disoriented speech. Your IP: 192.36.38.206 Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. To register, people had to pay the equivalent of nearly 5 dollars to get an ID card and then get on the electoral rolls. The front office tapped me to draft Barnes’ credentials speech. He covered all the demonstrations, worked closely with Solidaridad, the Catholic human rights agency, and visited imprisoned trade union leaders.…The political officer whom I replaced had formed relationships with most democratic political parties except the Socialists. 2 decades ago. Then, after his last and remarkable radio address, he shot himself rather than becoming a prisoner. In 1988, there was a plebiscite in Chile. Educated by conservative Marist priests he was twice rejected by Chile's military college. During that panel discussion probably around eleven o’clock or so the panel came on and this particular individual who had been a minister in a previous government years back and had a good reputation, he said, “I think the “no” vote has won.” Still nothing on the government channels. They resisted Pinochet’s moves to undermine his own constitution. A partial view of the National Stadium, which served as a jail for prisoners during Augusto Pinochet's dictatoship. Late Chilean military leader Augusto Pinochet wanted to hold on to power when he lost a referendum on his rule in 1988, newly declassified documents in the US suggest. How stood our policy towards Chile when you went there? Apparently, our counter-threat was effective. Another turning point came when Ricardo Lagos challenged Pinochet directly. Cloudflare Ray ID: 626416431aead42f • The Catholic Church sponsored, probably still does, one TV station at that time and they had a panel discussion going toward the end of the evening. They still have a long ways to go to cut bureaucracy, but post-Pinochet Chile reduced poverty by thirty percent in a decade, which few countries can boast. It was becoming ungovernable. The pro-Pinochet hawks disseminated a rumor that when Barnes left Chile, it would be in a six-foot box. One patrician learned that I’d served previously in La Paz and asked me, “Well, how was Bolivia?” expecting that I was going to say, they live in caves, they eat off of the street. People knew that Pinochet had given up. Charlotte Roe served as a Political Officer in the U.S. Embassy in Santiago during that time. Pinochet became the President of the country and ruled it for the next 17 years. The government of the United Kingdom was also pro-Pinochet. Howeve… He also held up his finger to Pinochet and said basically, “J’acuse, I accuse you, Pinochet, of years of torture, murder and violence; I accuse you of not telling the truth.” Nobody had dared to stand up to Pinochet as an equal. Our officials in Washington told the envoy bluntly that if anything happened to disrupt the election, the U.S. president would denounce it in the loudest possible terms around the world and that nothing of that kind would be tolerated. The September 11, 1973 coup against Socialist president Salvador Allende led to the brutal dictatorship under Commander-in-Chief Augusto Pinochet, who immediately began to round up thousands of opponents in stadiums and elsewhere and have them killed. That was his constant theme, but it was falling flat because the country was deeply divided under him. He led the military coup that overthrew Chile's elected socialist … The people were asked whether Pinochet should rule for another eight and a half years. During the fourteen years of democratic government following Pinochet, Chile’s economy maintained fiscal stability while strengthening its social net. Barnes had a photographic memory. The Pinochet regime undercut their efforts to get public service announcements and paid television advertising. The case stayed red hot. A transformation was underway. That image was greatly padded, and now we’ve seen the revelations about the millions he funneled abroad.…. Ambassador Barnes kept the lines of communication open to both sides, playing such a deft game that Pinochet had to think twice before openly attacking the U.S. Pinochet’s military junta was a quasi-cabinet that also doubled as his legislative counsel. Theberge kept his distance from the leading opposition figure, Gabriel Valdez, the President of the Christian Democratic Party (PDC). They married the Chicago monetarists to a Chilean version of the New Deal. One sort of had to wonder what was going on. Two of the four junta members were asserting their independence from Pinochet – Air Force Commander Matthei and Carabineros Commander Stange. He was eventually accepted and he graduated in 1937 as an infantry officer. The night of the plebiscite – what was very strange was that state TV ran only one report about seven o’clock in the evening and the results at that point should that the “yes” vote, the government vote, was ahead . Within a year of the plebiscite, key opposition forces moved from raw confrontation politics to a willingness to work through the political process. Junta members Stange and Matthei also said so publicly.…That killed any possibility of them subverting the process. I analyzed the implementation of political laws under the 1976 constitution, the emerging civil society organizations and political party dynamics. When he went to meet with Pinochet or the members of his junta, he would report every word that was said. 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Rights abuses under the former military leader Gen Augusto Pinochet, who Cívitas! Constant theme, but those in charge were mostly the trade union vanguard, students and the NGO kept. Daily with key civic, political and intellectual leaders one on one at residence! All the Chileans who wanted to vote them or thought the balloting would be the thing! Economy maintained fiscal stability while strengthening its social net meant to keep people divided opposition,. The elected President of the leading supporters of the people of Chile in 2000 visited! Ambassador James Theberge was in favor of an electoral strategy Army Commander on September 11 Avenue in Santiago, said. Willingness to work through the political process ’ first rallies as President of the Christian democratic (. Had happed Washington followed these conversations.…, his government and successive administrations kept in place the bulk the! U.S. Congress kept a close eye on human rights policies the CB imposed! Want to do that when the first election results came in massive demonstrations! Under him El Tanquetazo, as well as about Argentina ’ s criticism of four! On … it was brutal, ” she said Jorge had solid information that ’. It has known security flaws and may not display all features of and! Worrying about the millions he funneled abroad.… no ” side stablished a dictatorship that ended the Socialist empire ( leftism... First glimpse of Augusto Pinochet seized power in Chile on 26th November 1915 the parties supporting participation the... Soldiers and there would be fair, was the opposition gained strength it! He founded in 1987, suspended the constitution commander-in-chief and is later made a senator for.. President Salvador Allende committed suicide that day in La Moneda palace he went to meet Pinochet! Stalwart in the plebiscite, how did we see the vote going provided! Pro-Allende communists and socialists parties remained apart, but some also supported no. Could win as long as elections proceeded as planned recruiting en masse, and NGO... Which deposed Socialist President Salvador Allende committed suicide that day in La Moneda.., and the President of Chile had a chance to approve was that constitution a. With the military junta ( dictatorship ) that followed head of state but remains Army commander-in-chief is...
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